In Solomon’s day there was no middle wall of partition in the Temple. In Herod’s Temple there was a middle dividing wall of partition and the outer court was for the Gentile. Jesus broke down this middle wall as described in Ephesians 2 and 3, creating one new man. Actually restoring things back to Solomon’s day. For back then Gentiles who came to God actually became Jews. They were circumcised and added to Israel. At the Crucifixion this middle wall of separation was destroyed in Christ. Even though the outer court was still there but because of the cross it was only for those outside — for the nations who remain unsaved. These nations will be judged when Jesus returns based on their works not based on spiritual rebirth (Matt. 25). They will be ruled by Messiah and the one new man of the Inner courts following Christ’s return and His Judgment of the nations. The Day of the Lord or the Millennial Kingdom is that time of Judgment. The one new man who reigns with Him are those of the heart circumcision.
Revelation 22:12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. (KJV)
With the new covenant Gentiles and Jews are restored as one new man in Christ.